The Metals Biological Filtration Process
During the process, bacteria attach to the Biolite “S” filter media that was designed specifically for biological removal of metals. Biolite media acts as a support for bacteria, enables high-rate filtration, and does not require periodic replacement or regeneration. The Ferazur/Mangazur/Nitrazur process controls the environmental conditions within the filter, ensuring the development of an efficient biofilm.
The selected microorganisms oxidize into extremely dense precipitates, enabling three to five times the metal retention when compared to chemically-formed precipitates.
Arsenic removal is achieved through biocatalytic oxidation and absorption with the iron oxides that are continuously produced in the filter.
The Nitrazur™ process oxidizes ammonia and reduces nitrates. Ammonia oxidation is achieved through autotrophic bacteria while naturally occurring denitrifying heterotrophic bacteria reduce nitrate to nitrogen gas.
While providing consistent treated water quality, Ferazur/Mangazur/Nitrazur systems also provide operational flexibility, and backwashes can be performed with raw or treated water.
The optimal pH, and ORP (oxidation-reduction potential) are required for the correct operation of the biological process. This is achieved through the controlled injection of process air (depending on the raw water pH), which increases the ORP.
For some applications, a pH adjustment is necessary to obtain the proper operating conditions, requiring the injections of an alkaline reagent (NaOH, Ca(OH)2 etc).
The accumulated iron, manganese, arsenic, ammonia and nitrates must eventually be removed from the filter through regular backwashes using a simultaneous water and air scour. This reduces backwash water consumption and ensures an efficient cleaning of the media. Backwashes are typically triggered based on pre-set values of measured pressure drop through the filter.